Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic variation and evolution, which arises from replication error, transposition and DNA damage. Mutation accumulation (MA) experiment is an alternative approach to straight study de novo mutation events. SMAL includes MA lines reported in eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral genomes, whose mutations had been sequenced by using Illumina platforms, pyrosequencing technology,Sanger etc. To accelerate the mutation accumulation, mismatch repair genes of the ancestor strain had been knockout (KO) for two (ECOL2001 of Escherichia coli and STYP2001 of Salmonella typhimurium), and genes required to prevent spontaneous C deamination had been KO in a MA experiment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SCER1002).

How to cite the SMAL:Wei W, Ning LW, Ye YN, Li SJ, Zhou HQ, Huang J, Guo FB* (2014) SMAL: A resource of spontaneous mutation accumulation lines. Mol Biol Evol.


BPS: base pair substitution; IDS: insertion,deletion and other substitution

Dataset Eukaryote Cell type Mutation Reference
ATHA1001 Arabidopsis thaliana Multicellular 99 7.00E-09 17 Ossowski S et al. (2010)
CELE1001 Caenorhabditis elegans Multicellular 316 2.50E-09 - Denver DR et al. (2009)
CELE1002 Caenorhabditis elegans Multicellular 75 3.10E-09 - Denver DR et al. (2009)
CELE1003 Caenorhabditis elegans Multicellular 108 1.33E-09 - Denver DR et al. (2012)
CELE1004 Caenorhabditis elegans Multicellular 99 1.62E-09 - Denver DR et al. (2012)
CREI1001 Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Unicellular 9 2.08E-10 5 Ness RW et al. (2012)
CREI1002 Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Unicellular 20 6.76E-11 13 Sung W et al. (2012)
CBRI1001 Caenorhabditis briggsae Multicellular 91 1.23E-09 - Denver DR et al. (2012)
CBRI1002 Caenorhabditis briggsae Multicellular 150 1.44E-09 - Denver DR et al. (2012)
PTET1001 Paramecium tetraurelia Unicellular 29 1.94E-11 4 Sung W et al. (2012)
HSAP1001 Homo sapiens (ChrY) Multicellular 4 3.00E-08 - Xue Y et al. (2009)
DMEL1001 Drosophila melanogaster Multicellular 174 3.50E-09 35 Keightley PD et al. (2009)
DMEL1002 Drosophila melanogaster (Mitochondrion) Multicellular 28 6.20E-08 7 Haag-Liautard C et al. (2008)
DMEL1003 Drosophila melanogaster Multicellular 753 5.49E-09 67 Schrider DR et al. (2013)
SCER1001 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Unicellular 31 3.30E-10 2 Lynch M et al. (2008)
SCER1002 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Unicellular 267 2.12E-08 - Chen X et al. (2012)
PPAC1001 Pristionchus pacificus (Mitochondrion) Multicellular 7 4.50E-08 5 Molnar RI et al. (2011)
DPUL1001 Daphnia pulex (Mitochondrion) Multicellular 6 3.15E-08 11 Xu S et al. (2012)
DMEL1004 Drosophila melanogaster Multicellular 9 2.80E-09 3 Keightley PD et al. (2014)